Geography

Characteristics

The Province’s surface covers 29,801 square kilometres, almost 1% of the country’s total surface. Over 1,000 kilometres of international borders surround Misiones.

Its geographical position makes it a very unique province. The Iguazú, San Antonio, Pepirí Guazú, and Uruguay rivers are the borders with Brazil to the North, East, and South. To the West, the Paraná river marks the border with the Republic of Paraguay; to the Southwest, the Itaembé and Chimiray streams mark the border with the province of Corrientes. But Misiones also has a few metres of dry border: the Argentine town of Bernardo de Irigoyen shares an urban road with the neighbouring Brazilian town Dionisio Cerqueira.

Sun and rain

The Province has a humid subtropical climate, with no dry seasons. Rains abound throughout the year and sometimes occur suddenly and briefly before once again giving way to a clear, sunny sky. Annual rainfall totals go from 1,700 mm in the Southwest to 2,200 mm in the East. The annual average temperature is 21° C (70° F). The coldest days occur in June, July, and August, with temperatures that may go below 10° C (50° F). Summers are hot: during December, January, and February, temperatures go above 32° C (90° F).

The hills and ranges of Misiones

The landscape of Misiones is formed by jungle-covered ranges, hills—such as Santa Ana (372 metres high)—and valleys with visible treetops. In the South and alongside the Paraná and Uruguay rivers there are plains with slight undulations. The central region of the province has plateaus, whose heights increase northbound, reaching 843 metres above sea level in the Eastern border ranges, in the town of Bernardo de Irigoyen, near the border with Brazil.

Rivers and streams

The Province has over 800 watercourses, some of them vast, such as the Urugua-í, Piray Guazú, and Yabebirí streams. The sources of the streams are in the ranges of Misiones and their waters form falls and cascades within ecosystems that feature a significant biodiversity, sustained by the humidity created by the drizzle of the waterfalls. This dense hydrographic network flows into three large, torrential rivers of the Cuenca del Plata or Río de la Plata Basin: Paraná, Iguazú, and Uruguay, whose sources are in Brazilian territory.

Red soils

During the Mesozoic era, large volcanic eruptions occurred which covered the Brasilia Massif with several layers of basalt. These rocks are called melaphyres and they can be found in most of the Misiones subsoil. Their decomposition eventually formed the soil, which results from the accumulation of aluminium and iron oxides. It is formed by laterite, rock or earth made of clay or silica which, due to the iron oxide it contains, features a reddish colour.

In certain parts of the territory, the soil is not very deep and rock outcrops may be observed. In other parts, the soil is rocky and very steep. It is in the deepest soils that yerba mate, tea, and other plantations can be found, as well as afforestations and other crops such as tobacco and cassava. Rocky soils are located in the highest spots of the jungle-covered ranges.

Ubicación

Misiones se localiza en el extremo Nordeste de la República Argentina. Se ubica entre los paralelos 25° y 28° de Latitud Sur, y entre los meridianos 53° y 56° de Longitud Oeste.

Temperatura

El clima de Misiones es Subtropical sin estación seca y la temperatura media anual es de 21° C.

Colón 1985 - Posadas - Misiones
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